Circa 600-1000 BCE: In ancient India, especially in the sun kissed southern coasts in what is now known as Kerala, Ayurveda takes its first step towards the use of metals as medicines. Charaka Samhita, the foundational text for Ayurveda written during this era, asserts that metals reduced to a fine powder form can be used to treat various ailments. The powders are known as Ayaskriti. billig nike air max 2016 Circa 7 CE: Science evolves and rasa-shastra or Vedic chemistry is now an important component in the study of Ayurveda. A new technique ‘Marana’ emerges via which metals and minerals are converted to an extremely fine and absorbable powder known as bhasmas. The literal meaning of bhasma is ash. Treated with herbal juices and exposed to heat, bhasmas are now used to treat a wide range of diseases. Circa 2000 CE: It’s the 21st century and modern science has discovered the benefits of nano technology. From medicines to computers, cosmetics to cars, and clothes to sports the world marvels at the impact that nano particles have on modern life. It’s a long journey from the Ayaskriti of the 600 BCE to the nano particles of 2000 CE. However, today as the world revels in nano technology, it seems appropriate that we salute the ancient Ayurveda practitioners who had, perhaps, pioneered the technology in the form of bhasmas. The concept that bhasmas might be the early avatars of nano particles came into the spotlight with studies that were conducted at the department of Rasa Shashtra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Banaras Hindu University. The study, which claimed that bhasma are equivalent to nano particles produced by nanotechnology in the contemporary era, was published in the Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (December 2010) and attracted considerable attention across the globe. Goedkoop Adidas NEO Characteristics of Bhasmas Bhasmas are made of metals, minerals, herbs, natural stones or gems. The process of bhasmikarana (or synthesizing bhasmas) involves several stages. The effort at each stage is to reduce the base material to finer and finer particle size. Air Jordan 7 Donna The bhasma should eventually be fine enough to get into the lines and crevices of our fingers. The idea is that it should be of such microscopic proportions that it will be absorbed by the body cells. The perfect bhasmas are light, lustreless and tasteless. The Charaka Samhita recognizes only those preparations as medicines which do not have any adverse side effects and bhasmas have to meet this criterion. Bhasmas have to be ‘rasayana’; that is they should have immuno-modulation and anti-aging quality. They are also used as a targeted drug delivery system and thus are said to be ‘yogavahi’. Bhasmas are prescribed in very minute dosages (15 to 250 mg/day) under the supervision of a practitioner. Fjallraven Kanken Big A well prepared bhasma is readily absorbable, adaptable and non-toxic. Nike Air Max 2016 Heren grijs Making bhasmas is a laborious process and the time involved ranges from a week to three years. The steps involved include the careful selection of pure raw materials, the process of fine grinding, mixing with herbal juices to create additional value, drying and storing of the intermediate product and heating or incinerating to create the right texture. Types and Uses of Bhasmas There are around 50 different types of bhasmas used in Ayurveda. These include bhasmas made from gold, diamond, stone, iron, bell metal, processed eggshell calcium, silver, cowry shells, copper and many more materials. Maglie Chicago Bulls Swarna Bhasma is – as the name suggests – made with finely powdered 24 carat gold and is used for a wide range of ailments ranging from lung diseases, nervous disorders, digestive problems, anaemia and sexual disorders. Adidas 2017 Goedkoop Ayurvedic practitioners normally prescribe it when the patient is diagnosed with kapha and vata imbalances. Vanga bhasma (tin ashes) is prescribed for diabetes and tamara bhasma (copper ashes) for abdominal disorders, skin diseases, anaemia, obesity, tuberculosis, anorexia, asthma, eye diseases, and dyspepsia. Rajat Bhasma or silver ash is widely used to treat memory loss. It balances vata, pitta and kapha naturally and therefore boosts the immune system, body strength, brain activity, digestion and skin colour. Mixing Ancient Ayurveda with Modern Science One of the first successes in mixing the ancient science of Ayurveda bhasmas with modern medicine was achieved at the Agharkar Research Institute in Pune. In a paper published in the journal “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine”, a research group from the institute proposed a novel nano particle drug – based on the ayurveda concept of bhasma – for diabetes. The paper claims that the researchers successfully used this nano medicine to treat both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes in rats. Jasada bhasma, made of zinc, is mentioned in ayurveda as an effective treatment for diabetes. The research group used traditionally synthesized Jasada bhasma to treat rats with chemically induced diabetes. The study concluded that the Jasada bhasma treatment showed reduction of blood glucose levels comparable to the drug glibenclamide in case of Type-1 diabetic rats. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren wit In the case of Type-2 diabetic rats, treatment with Jasada bhasma was found to be comparable to the widely used drug pioglitazone. Once the anti-diabetic effect of Jasada bhasma was confirmed, the research group focused attention on the synthesis of Jasada bhasma, which was a laborious and time consuming process. Asics Corrido męskie A study of the bhasma composition through modern physico-chemical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, revealed that Jasada bhasma consisted of zinc oxide in the form of nano-particles of the size 200-500 nanometre (one nanometre is one billionth of a metre). asics homme pas cher The research group procured zinc oxide nano-particles (ZON), of less than 10 nanometres in size, from a company in the United States. After four weeks of oral administration of ZON the diabetic rats showed improved glucose tolerance, higher serum insulin, reduced blood glucose and reduced triglycerides. The research group thus proposed that the new chemical entity – zinc oxide nano-particles – were a promising anti-diabetic agent. Over the years, bhasmas had lost their popularity as medicines and drug delivery systems as people were naturally wary of taking metal preparations.