[53][54] During ground testing on 29 November 1951

52 Stratofortress

The Boeing B is an American long range, subsonic, jet powered strategic bomber. The B 52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since the 1950s. The B 52 took its maiden flight in April 1952. Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War era deterrence missions, the B replaced the Convair B 36. A canada goose clearance veteran of several wars, the B 52 has dropped only conventional munitions in combat. The B 52’s official name Stratofortress is rarely used; informally, the aircraft has become commonly referred to as the BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fucker).[7][8][9][Note 1]

The B 52 has been in active service with the USAF since 1955. As of December 2015[11] The bombers flew under the Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was disestablished in 1992 and its aircraft absorbed into the Air Combat Command (ACC); in 2010 all B es were transferred from the ACC to the newly created Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). Superior performance at high subsonic speeds and relatively low operating costs have kept the B 52 in service despite the advent of later, more advanced aircraft, including the canceled Mach 3 B 70 Valkyrie, the variable geometry B 1 Lancer, and the stealth B 2 Spirit. The B 52 completed sixty years of continuous service with canada goose factory sale its original operator in 2015. After being upgraded between 2013 and 2015, it is expected to serve into the 2050s.[Note 2]

In May 1948, AMC asked Boeing to incorporate the previously discarded, but now more fuel efficient, jet engine into the design.[37] That resulted in the development of yet Canada Goose Coats On Sale another revision in July 1948, Model 464 40 substituted Westinghouse J40 turbojets for the turboprops.[38] The Air Force project officer who reviewed the Model 464 40 was favorably impressed, especially since he had already been thinking along similar lines. Nevertheless, Canada Goose sale the government was concerned about the high fuel consumption rate of the jet engines of the day, and directed that Boeing still use the turboprop powered Model 464 35 as Canada Goose Jackets the basis for the XB 52. Although he agreed that turbojet propulsion was the future, General Howard A. Craig, Deputy Chief of Staff for Material, Canada Goose Online was not very keen on a jet powered B 52, since he felt that the jet engine had not yet progressed sufficiently to permit skipping an intermediate turboprop stage. However, Boeing was encouraged to continue turbojet studies even without any expected commitment to jet propulsion.[39][40]

On Thursday, 21 October canada goose uk black friday 1948, Boeing engineers George S. Schairer, Art Carlsen and Vaughn Blumenthal presented the design of a four engine turboprop bomber to the chief of bomber development, Colonel Pete Warden. Warden was disappointed by the projected aircraft and asked if canada goose coats the Boeing team could come up with a proposal for a four engine turbojet bomber. Joined by Ed Wells, Boeing vice president of engineering, the engineers worked that night in the Hotel Van Cleve in Dayton, Ohio, redesigning Boeing’s proposal as a four engine turbojet bomber. On Friday, Colonel Warden buy canada goose jacket cheap looked over the information and asked for a better design. Returning to the hotel, the Boeing team was joined by Bob Withington and Maynard Pennell, two top Boeing engineers who were in town on other business.[41]

By late Friday night, they had laid out what was essentially a new airplane. The new design (464 49) built upon the basic layout of the B 47 Stratojet with 35 degree swept wings, eight engines paired in four underwing uk canada goose outlet pods, and bicycle landing gear with wingtip outrigger wheels.[42] A notable feature of the landing gear was the ability to pivot the main landing gear up to 20 from the aircraft centerline to increase safety during crosswind landings.[43] After a trip to a hobby shop for supplies, Schairer set to work building a model. The rest of the team focused on weight and performance data. Wells, who was also a skilled artist, completed the aircraft drawings. On Sunday, a stenographer was hired to type a clean copy of the proposal. On Monday, Schairer presented Colonel Warden with a neatly bound 33 page Canada Goose Outlet proposal and a 14 inch scale model.[41] The aircraft was projected to exceed all design specifications.[44]

Although the full size mock up inspection in April 1949 was generally favorable, range again became a concern since the J40s and early model J57s had excessive fuel consumption.[45] Despite talk of another revision of specifications or even Canada Goose sale a full design competition among aircraft manufacturers, General LeMay, now in charge of Strategic Air Command, insisted that performance should not be compromised due to delays in engine development.[46][47] In a final attempt to increase range, Boeing created the larger 464 67, stating that once in production, the range could be further increased in subsequent modifications.[48] Following several direct interventions by LeMay,[49] Boeing was awarded a production contract for thirteen s and seventeen detachable reconnaissance pods on 14 February 1951.[50] The last major design change also at General LeMay’s insistence was a switch from the B 47 style tandem seating to a more conventional side by side cockpit, which increased the effectiveness of the copilot and reduced crew fatigue.[51] Both XB 52 prototypes featured the original tandem seating arrangement with a framed bubble type canopy.[52]The, the second XB 52 modified with more operational equipment, first flew on 15 April 1952 with “Tex” Johnston as pilot.[53][54] During ground testing on 29 November 1951, the XB canada goose uk shop 52’s pneumatic system failed during a full pressure test; the resulting explosion severely damaged the trailing edge of the wing, necessitating considerable repairs. A two hour, 21 minute proving flight from Boeing Field, King County, in Seattle, Washington to Larson AFB was undertaken with Boeing test pilot Johnston and air force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend.[55] The XB 52 followed on 2 October canada goose uk outlet 1952.[56] The thorough development,[Note 3] including 670 days in the wind tunnel and 130 days of aerodynamic and aeroelastic testing, paid off with smooth flight uk canada goose testing. Encouraged, the air force increased its order to 282 B 52s.[58]

Only three Canada Goose online of the 13 s ordered were built.[65] All were returned to Boeing, and used in their test program.[59] On 9 June 1952, the February 1951 contract was updated to order the aircraft under new specifications. The final 10, the first aircraft to enter active service, were completed as B 52Bs.[59] At the roll out ceremony on 18 March 1954, Air Force Chief of Staff General Nathan Twining said:

The long rifle was the great weapon of its day. today this B 52 is the long rifle of the air age.[66][67]

The B 52B was followed cheap canada goose uk by progressively improved bomber and reconnaissance variants, culminating in the and turbofan. To allow rapid delivery, production lines were set up both at its main Seattle factory and at Boeing’s Wichita facility. More than 5,000 companies were involved in the massive production effort, with 41% of the airframe being built by subcontractors.[68] The prototypes and all, B and C models (90 aircraft)[69] were built at Seattle. Testing of aircraft built at Seattle caused problems due to jet noise, which led to the establishment of curfews for engine tests. Aircraft were ferried 150 miles (240 east on their maiden flights to Larson Air Force Base near Moses Lake, where they were fully tested.[70]

As production of the B 47 came to an end, the Wichita factory was phased in for production, with Seattle responsible for 101 D models and Wichita 69.[71] Both plants continued to build the , with 42 built at Seattle and 58 at Wichita,[72] and the (44 from Seattle and 45 from Wichita).[73] For the, it was decided in 1957 to transfer all production to Wichita, which freed up Seattle for other tasks (in particular the production of airliners).[74][75] Production ended in 1962 with the, with 742 aircraft built, plus the original two prototypes.[76]A proposed variant of the was the E, which would have consisted of 16 modified and augmented airframes with additional electronic jamming capabilities.[77][78] This variant would have restored USAF airborne jamming capability that it lost on retiring the EF 111 Raven. The program was canceled in 2005 following the removal of funds for the stand off jammer. The program was revived in 2007, and cut again in early 2009.[79]

In July 2013, the Air Force began a fleet wide technological upgrade of its B 52 bombers called Combat Network Communications Technology (CONECT) to modernize electronics, communications technology, computing, and avionics on the flight deck. CONECT upgrades include software and hardware such as new computer servers, modems, radios, data links, receivers, and digital workstations for the crew. One update is the ARC 210 Warrior beyond line of sight software programmable radio able to transmit voice, data, and information in flight between B 52s and ground command and control centers, allowing the transmission and reception of data with updated intelligence, mapping, and targeting information; previous in flight target changes required copying down coordinates. The ARC 210 allows machine to machine transfer of data, useful on long endurance missions where targets may have moved before the arrival of the B 52. The aircraft will be able to receive information through Link 16. CONECT upgrades will cost $1.1 billion overall and take several years. Funding has been secured for 30 B 52s; the Air Force hopes for 10 CONECT upgrades per year, but the rate has yet to be decided.[80]

Weapons upgrades include the 1760 Internal Weapons Bay Upgrade (IWBU), which gives a 66 percent increase in weapons payload using a digital interface and rotary launcher. IWBU is expected to cost roughly $313 million.[80] The 1760 IWBU will allow the B 52 to carry the AGM 158B JASSM ER cruise missile and the ADM 160C MALD J decoy missile. All 1760 IWBUs should be operational by October 2017. Two bombers will have the ability canada goose coats on sale to carry 40 weapons in place of the 36 that three B 52s can carry.[81] The 1760 IWBU allows precision guided missiles or bombs to be deployed from inside the weapons bay; previous canada goose store aircraft carried these munitions externally on wing hardpoints. This increases the number of guided weapons a B 52 can carry and reduces the need for guided bombs to be carried on the wings. The first phase will allow a B 52 to carry twenty four 500 pound guided JDAM bombs or twenty 2,000 pound JDAMs, with later phases accommodating the JASSM and MALD family of missiles.[82] In addition to carrying more smart bombs, moving them internally from the wings reduces drag and achieves a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption.[83]

Air Force scientists are working to arm the B 52 with defensive laser weapons able to incinerate attacking air to air or surface to air missiles.[84]

The B 52 shared many technological similarities with the preceding Boeing B 47 Stratojet strategic bomber. The two aircraft used the same basic design, such as swept wings and podded jet engines,[85] and the cabin included the crew ejection systems.[86] On the, the pilots and electronic countermeasures (EDM) canadian goose jacket operator ejected upwards, while the lower deck crew ejected downwards; until the, the gunner had to jettison the tail gun to bail out.[87]

Structural fatigue was accelerated by at least a factor of eight in a low altitude flight profile over that of high altitude flying, requiring costly repairs to extend service life. In the early 1960s, the three phase High Stress program was launched to counter structural fatigue, enrolling aircraft at 2,000 flying hours.[89][90] Follow up programs were conducted, such as a 2,000 hour service life extension to select airframes in 1966 1968, and the extensive Pacer Plank reskinning, completed in 1977.[75][91] The wet wing introduced on G and H models was even more susceptible to fatigue, experiencing 60% more stress during flight than the old wing. The wings were modified by 1964 under ECP 1050.[92] This was followed by a fuselage skin and longeron replacement (ECP 1185) in cheap Canada Goose 1966, and the B 52 Stability Augmentation and Flight Control program (ECP 1195) in 1967.[92] Fuel leaks due to deteriorating Marman clamps continued to plague all variants of the B Canada Goose Parka 52. To this end, the aircraft were subjected to Blue Band (1957), Hard Shell (1958), and finally QuickClip (1958) programs. The latter fitted safety straps that prevented catastrophic loss of fuel in case of clamp failure.[93] The B 52’s service ceiling is officially listed as 50,000 but operational experience shows this is difficult to reach when fully laden with bombs. According to one source: “The optimal altitude for a combat mission was around 43,000 because to exceed that height would rapidly degrade the plane’s range.”[94]

In September 2006, the B 52 became one of the first US military aircraft to fly using alternative fuel. Originally an all moving vertical stabilizer was to be used, but was abandoned because of doubts about hydraulic actuator reliability.[97] Because the aircraft has eight engines, asymmetrical thrust due to the loss of an engine in flight would be minimal and correctable with the narrow rudder. To assist with crosswind takeoffs and landings the main buy canada goose jacket landing gear can be pivoted 20 degrees to either side from neutral.[98] This yaw adjustable crosswind landing gear would be preset by the crew according to wind observations made on the ground. For long term pitch trim and airspeed changes the aircraft uses an all moving tail with the elevator used for small adjustments within a stabilizer setting. The stabilizer is adjustable through 13 degrees of movement (nine up, four down) and is crucial to operations during take off and landing canada goose clearance sale due to large pitch changes induced by flap application.[99]

B 52s prior to the G models had very small ailerons with a short span that was approximately equal to their chord. In other words, aileron activation would cause the wing to twist, undermining roll control. Six spoilerons on each wing are responsible for the majority of roll control. The late models eliminated the ailerons altogether and added an extra spoileron to each wing.[97] Partly because of the lack of ailerons, the and H models were more susceptible to Dutch roll.[99]

Ongoing problems with avionics systems were addressed in the Jolly Well program, https://www.canadagoose-coats.ca completed in 1964, which improved components of the AN/ASQ 38 bombing navigational computer and the terrain computer. The MADREC (Malfunction Detection and Recording) upgrade fitted to most aircraft by 1965 could detect failures in avionics and weapons computer systems, and was essential in monitoring the Hound Dog missiles. The electronic countermeasures capability of the B 52 was expanded with Rivet Rambler (1971) and Rivet Ace (1973).[100]

To improve operations at low altitude, canada goose the AN/ASQ 151 Electro Optical Viewing System (EVS), which consisted of a Low Light Level Television (LLLTV) canada goose black friday sale and a Forward looking infrared (FLIR) system mounted in blisters under the noses of s and Hs between 1972 and 1976.[101] The navigational capabilities of the B 52 were later augmented with the addition of GPS in the 1980s.[102] The IBM AP 101, also used on the Rockwell B 1 Lancer bomber and the Space Shuttle, was the B 52’s main computer.[103].

About Kerala Tourism

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